by Jean Patterson
Ten years ago, the title
for this article, "Azerbaijan on the Internet," would
have held little meaning for most people. But times have changed,
as has technology. These days, not just Azerbaijan, but the entire
world is struggling to adapt and embrace this powerful new technology.
Where it will lead is anyone's guess.
already begun to tap into the potential of the Internet, and
the country's presence on the Web is growing. In the past year
alone, many new Web sites related to Azerbaijan have appeared,
increasing awareness of the country's culture, politics, economy,
refugees and, of course, oil. Azerbaijani youth studying abroad
have caught on quickly to the potential of the Internet and some
have built elaborate Web sites of their own.
Six years of magazine articles are available at Azerbaijan
International's Web site <azer.com>. A search engine on
site, though slow, is quite comprehensive in scanning 700 articles
in Azerbaijan yet have access to home computers but many Azeri
personnel working in foreign companies are very familiar with
this technology. However, once Azerbaijanis are financially able
to buy them, computers will become one of the country's most
popular commodities. Without a doubt the use of the Internet
will increase exponentially in Azerbaijan: e-mail will become
an everyday means of communicating and Web sites will proliferate.
The Soros Foundation and the USAID provide classes and free online
access. Hundreds of young people, especially those learning English,
are enrolling in classes.
In the meantime, there is still a great need for current, accurate
information on the Web about Azerbaijan. Far too few Web sites
contain reliable material. Many of today's Azerbaijan-related
Web sites are merely directories that link to other Web sites,
providing easy access but little original content of their own.
Others store material that is already outdated or no longer relevant.
The most reliable Web sites are typically those affiliated with
established institutions or organizations but this doesn't always
hold true. For instance, Adil Baguirov, a 20-year-old college
student, has one of the best collections of reference pages on
Don't believe everything that you read on the Web. There are
no Web police. Misinformation floats out there in Cyberspace
side by side with the truth. It doesn't help that opinions and
information can be contributed anonymously; some people think
that they have license to say whatever they want with little
or no recourse. Considering that the countries of the Caucasus
are situated in a "rough" neighborhood, it's important
to carefully scrutinize what you read on the Web about Azerbaijan.
on the Web
you try to find "Azerbaijan" on different search engines
or Web directories, you may come up with a completely different
listing of Web sites. Search engines "rank" Web sites
according to different criteria. A search on Lycos, for example,
may give very different results than Excite does.
The most popular search engines in the United States include:
AltaVista, EuroSeek, Excite, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, Go To,
Northern Light and WebCrawler. (In each case, the name of the
search engine is followed by <com>.) Magellan can be found
Or, search several engines at once by visiting a multi-search
engine such as Digiway or Dogpile. Web site directories such
as Yahoo and LookSmart are also helpful for sorting out the tangled
Web of sites; they differ from search engines in that their listings
are created by staff personnel rather than computers, and therefore,
they are more selective.
of the greatest problems for Azerbaijan on the Web relates to
spelling. One of the first laws passed by the Azerbaijani Parliament
(December 25, 1991) was to rid themselves officially of Cyrillic
and adopt a modified Latin alphabet. Consequently, spellings
into English are chaotic. For example, references to the President
may be found spelled as Heydar Aliyev (via Azeri), Geidar or
Geydar Aliev (via Russian). Sometimes it is also spelled Heydar
Aliev. The conflict with Armenia over Azerbaijan's Nagorno-Karabakh
is another example. You'll find it listed as Karabakh (via Russian)
but also listed as Garabagh or Garabag (via Azeri). Armenians
refer to it among themselves as Artsakh.
that are problematic include "G" as in the name of
the famous composer Gara Garayev
and Kara Karayev (Russian); "H" as in Hasanov (Azeri)
is written Gasanov (Russian). You may also experience difficulties
with "J" as in the city Ganja (Azeri) or Gandzha (Russian).
The most confusing vowel is the "a" sound in "fat
cat" expressed in both Cyrillic and Azeri with an upside-down,
reversed "e". Such words tend to be spelled in English
with "a" (Azeri) and "e" (Russian). For example,
Shaki vs. Sheki, Daniz vs. Deniz.
Europe or Asia?
is a great deal of confusion about where Azerbaijan should be
located on international Web sites that list individual country
pages according to region. Former Soviet Republics in Eurasia
(like Azerbaijan) have been classified under Europe, Asia, the
Middle East and the Former Soviet Union. CNN includes Azerbaijan
in their list of Asia-Pacific countries!
To help you sort through this seeming chaos, we've compiled a
list of the more prominent Azerbaijan-related Web sites on the
Internet. Some of the Web sites on our list relate specifically
to Azerbaijan; others are broader in scope and feature Azerbaijan
in its international context. In each case, we try to point out
relative strengths and unique options. To visit each site, insert
<http://> before the Web address listed here.
are approximate and provide an idea of the size of the Web site.
Tallies are as of mid-January 1999. We have listed the number
of links to each site only as a measure of link popularity, which
is an important factor in the Web site's "ranking"
with many Search engines.
However, link popularity does not necessarily indicate quality.
Some of the newer sites are quite good but have not had enough
time to build up very many "linking" relationships.
We used Altavista to search for linkage at www.altavista.com by typing <link:(space)(Web
address)> in the search bar.
If the Web addresses that we have listed here no longer work
when you try to use them, keep in mind that the Internet is constantly
changing: Web sites move to different addresses, newer sites
pop up, others close down. If you come across material that you
believe is false, misleading or outdated, we encourage you contact
the Web site owner and courteously inform them how they can be
more accurate. Most will appreciate the feedback.
In the list that we provide below, we make no claim of having
described every site that is out there. We hope that we have
touched upon the major locations that provide valuable current
information about the country.
there is no substantial art collection on the Web. Azerbaijan
International magazine will be launching an online Azerbaijan
Art Gallery by June 1999 that will include 600-700 photos of
art from some of the best examples of contemporary artists. Biographical
information and the photo of each artist along with contact points
will be included so that art lovers all over the world can contact
Azerbaijani artists directly.
Also a Children's Art Gallery featuring distinguished work of
children in Azerbaijan will be available at the same time. Check
Azerbaijan International's Web site
www.azer.com for details.
The homepage of Azerbaijan's President, Heydar Aliyev www.president.az/azerbaijan/const.htm, describes the 158
Articles of Azerbaijan's Constitution (effective November 27,
1995). Article 18, for example, defines the relationship between
Religion and State, specifying that religion is separate from
the State, that all religions are equal under the law and that
state education is secular. As of September 1998, capital punishment
(Article 27) has been abolished though amendments to the Constitution
that are not yet reflected online.
It seems President
Clinton would have a better chance of staying in office in Azerbaijan
than in the U.S. because a "grave crime" must have
been committed to remove the President. In Azerbaijan, the length
of the investigation cannot extend beyond 30 days after being
submitted by the Supreme Court to a vote by Parliament (Article
is very little comprehensive material regarding the Azerbaijani
perspective on the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict with Armenia which
has resulted in 20,000 or more deaths, the displacement of nearly
1 million Azerbaijanis from their lands and the occupation of
nearly 20 percent of their territory. In fact, the coverage is
shamefully lacking in comparison to the aggressive information
that Armenians have put forth.
Be very careful when reading material about Nagorno-Karabakh
to first ascertain the viewpoint of the writer before taking
material at face value. Nagorno-Karabakh sites, even those categorized
on Search engines under the country of Azerbaijan, are usually
created by Armenians who also refer to the region as Artsakh.
Some scattered material from an Azerbaijani point-of-view can
be found here and there. Start with Virtual Azerbaijan where
there is a category related to Karabakh www.scf.usc.edu/~baguirov. Other sites include
Khojaly (the name of the town in which hundreds of civilians,
including women and children, were slaughtered by Armenians overnight-a
virtual genocide in this decade-in 1992 as they began their onslaught
in the Nagorno-Karabakh region) www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/5078; Azerbaijan International
www.azer.com and the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Pages, www.solar.rtd.utk.edu/oldfriends/azerbaijan/travel.html, provides an excellent
survival guide for one's first trip to Baku. Additional advice
can be found on the British Embassy's page www.intrans.baku.az/british and the U.S. Embassy's
looking for magazine articles about Azerbaijan, check out these
mainstream magazines: The Economist, www.economist.com; Newsweek, www.newsweek-int.com; Time, www.time.com; U.S. News and World
Report, www.usnews.com; and National Geographic
Magazine, www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/index.html. Azerbaijan International
magazine www.azer.com archives most of their
articles back to 1993.
If you are looking for material beyond the scope of current developments
in oil and the Karabakh conflict, then check out Azerbaijan International
which has published a rich source of cultural and social topics
related to art, culture, music, trends, transitions, language,
diplomatic interviews and more.
it comes to identification of the place names of cities and towns
on maps, be forewarned, it's a jungle out there. All of the former
Soviet Republics are having difficulty with materials reflecting
new names and new spellings. Soviet-imposed names have been replaced
with names that express the values and heroes and heroines of
the new reality. Azerbaijan's situation is further complicated
because a new Latin-based alphabet replaced the former Cyrillic
script. It is very difficult to find maps on the Web that have
the new names spelled correctly in English via Azeri, not Russian.
So far, we have only been able to identify Azerbaijan International's
Web site with accurate spellings on a map that they created themselves.
Hopefully, the paucity of accurate maps is only temprary. Maps
with the new Latin spelling of Azeri can be found at Khazar University
www.khazar.com. A valuable interactive
map that may be enlarged can be found at www.az/maps/azerb.html though the spellings
are very confused. Even some Soviet names are still included.
Azerbaijan International magazine www.azer.com is the only Web site that has more
than a few selections of recorded music available for listening.
You'll find 70 music samples in their Music section. The collection
tends to highlight classical music (Azerbaijani composers such
as Garayev, Hajibeyov and Amirov) rather than the traditional mugham.
The most popular performances are Rashid Behbudov, jazz pianist Aziza and the SKRUK
Brilliant and Ilgar Mammadov. CDs
and cassettes can be ordered.
national anthem, composed by Uzeyir Hajibeyov for the 1918-1920
Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, has been adopted by the newly
independent Republic. It is available at several locations. At
Virtual Azerbaijan scf.usc.edu/~baguirov, the text is in Azeri
Latin script while the music plays.
Post, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/worldref/country/azerbaij.htm, dedicates a page on
their Web site to Azerbaijan. There you'll find the latest Washington
Post and Associated Press stories about Azerbaijan, as well as
exchange rates, weather forecasts and historical weather data.
Other major newspapers on the Web include the Chicago Tribune,
www.chicagotribune.com; the London Times,
www.the-times.co.uk; the Los Angeles Times,
www.latimes.com; the New York Times,
www.nytimes.com; and USA Today, www.usatoday.com. Usually, you'll need
to register before exploring the site, and will have to pay a
fee to download past articles from the newspaper's archive.
Airways' Web site, www.british-airways.com/azerbaijan, lets you check flight
availability and book flights to and from Baku. The site features
a timetable, baggage allowance information, local bus information
and contact information for Baku-area offices.
KLM also has
a Web page for Azerbaijan, www.klm.nl/azerbaijan, including a timetable,
fares and phone numbers for local hotels and car rental companies.
Other airline Web sites include Azerbaijan Airlines at www.azal.az; Emirates at www.ekgroup.com; Lufthansa at www.lufthansa.com; Swissair at www.swissair.com; and Turkish Airlines
The Azerbaijan Embassy in D.C., www.azembassy.com/visa/visa.html, provides online information
about obtaining visas for Azerbaijan. Visas must be ordered directly
from the Embassy as they are not available for downloading from
your screen as is possible with some other Embassies.
out the weather on any given day in Baku or Ganja at The Weather
Government Web Sites
President of Azerbaijan
30 pages, linked by 63
Includes a biography of the President, articles about his official
visits from 1993 to the present, as well as photos and speeches.
Provides information about the Azerbaijani government, political
parties, economy, sports, tourism, and the Karabakh. To see photos
of the two carpet "portraits" Aliyev presented to the
Clintons and their daughter Chelsea on his official visit to
the U.S. in July 1997, click on: President Aliyev: Official Visits:
Visit to the USA: Information.
66 pages, linked by 3
This Web site has recently been updated and expanded to provide
much more information than before. Lists visa requirements and
national holidays. Provides contact information for hotels, branches
of the government and embassies in Baku. Features a timeline
of important recent events in Azerbaijan and a link to the Constitution.
Ministry of Culture
10 pages, linked by 16
Features articles about Azerbaijani museums, theaters and architecture.
Numerous photos of Azerbaijani mosques, fire temples, rock carvings
at Gobustan, carpets, pottery, jewelry and clothing. Good beginning.
Has potential for much more development.
Ministry of Health
25 pages, linked by 1
Gives contact information for hospitals, clinics, foreign and
local medical firms, research institutes and non-governmental
organizations. Includes information on the Azerbaijan Medical
Museum and Azerbaijani health resorts.
Ministry of Youth
10 pages, linked by 26
Features articles about Azerbaijani Olympic athletes, the World
Youth Games, and youth forums in Azerbaijan.
Academy of Sciences
50 pages, linked by 2
Lists the teachers, members and departments of the Academy. Gives
the history of the school and information about its museums.
10 pages, linked by 1
This report, written by The State Committee of the Azerbaijan
Republic for Ecology and Nature Management, covers specifics
on mining, precipitation, native flora and wildlife, pollution
levels and the governmental bodies that deal with management
of the environment.
Web Sites Related to Azerbaijan
American Embassy -
100 pages, linked by 34
Provides detailed information about living conditions in Baku,
recommended reading materials, procedures for getting a visa,
plus information on Section 907 and U.S. assistance to Azerbaijan.
Includes issues of the Caspian Chronicle going back more than
a year. Community Outreach section provides information on international
schools, local attorneys, travel agencies, hospitals and dentists
as well as menus for Baku restaurants.
700+ pages, linked by 240 (including CNN, Washington Post and
the Encyclopedia Brittanica)
This is the online version of Azerbaijan International magazine
which has been published since 1993. The site includes more than
1,200 photos, and is a valuable place to visit if you want to
get a feel for the "spirit" of Azerbaijan. Features
Calendar, Topics, Music and AI Store. International
identifies nearly 60 companies which have established themselves
in Azerbaijan. It includes photos of the current managers and
contact information. AI tries to keep this information current.
Azerbaijan International is one of the few sites totally dedicated
to Azerbaijan that has its own Search engine. It is thorough
but quite slow as it culls through the text of more than 700
articles. With patience, the viewer can have access to enormous
resources about the country.
25 pages, linked by 54
Provides current news headlines, exchange rates and weather,
as well as information about business and traveling in Azerbaijan.
Includes tips about appropriate business clothing and how not
to offend an Azerbaijani.
15 pages, linked by 54
This friendly Web site, created by Greg Cole in the UK, is designed
to be a resource for those who do business in, travel to, or
do research related to the Republic of Azerbaijan. Features a
Baku city tour with pictures, information on how to set up an
e-mail account in Baku and a survival guide for one's first trip
20 pages, linked by 7
Features a large number of links to Web sites about Azerbaijan
and its news, culture and history. Designed to enhance knowledge
about Azerbaijan and promote economic and scientific ties with
the U.S. Organization is based in New Jersey.
60 pages, linked by 4
Features a small art gallery, photos and descriptions of Azerbaijani
museums as well as recipes for traditional foods such as dolma
and plov. Includes news about the filming of a new James Bond
movie in Azerbaijan and Turkey.
30 pages, linked by 21
Details consular services and gives contact information for medical
clinics, dentists and hotels in Baku.
70 pages, linked by 39
Copies of Caspian Crossroads magazine from Winter 1995 to the
present are available at this site sponsored by the U.S.-Azerbaijan
Council. The magazine examines the political and economic implications
of the latest developments in the region, including issues on
politics, geo-politics, business, economics, law, history and
culture. Editor-in-chief is Jeyhun Mollazade.
25 pages, linked by 4
Quarterly magazine in Azeri Latin based in Sweden. Before reading
the Web pages, you need to download Azeri fonts. Features articles,
a chart of male and female Azerbaijani names, plus the lyrics
to Azerbaijani children's songs such as "Jujalarim."
65 pages, linked by 7
This site has recently been updated and is quite comprehensive
in describing the scope of the university which was the first
English language university established in Baku. The Web site
lists the instructors and departments at this private university.
Shows photos of the Honorary doctorate degrees that have been
bestowed (Tofig Guliyev, Sara Ashurbeyli, Javad Heyat, Tadeusz
Swietochowski and Val Rust).
55 pages, linked by 12
Documents the 1992 massacre of Azerbaijani civilians by Armenian
militants in the town of Khojaly, known as Xocali (Azeri spelling)
and Khodjaly (via Russian), located in the Karabakh (Qarabag
in Azeri) region of Azerbaijan. See the valuable article by Thomas
Goltz, an American journalist who witnessed the chaotic trauma
in a nearby town the following day.
10 pages, linked by 8
Sponsored by the United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce
(USACC). This page has recently been completely revised and features
upcoming events, business news, membership information, plus
information on history, politics, economics, legal issues and
humanitarian missions to Azerbaijan. The USACC is an independent,
nonprofit American organization based in Washington D.C., whose
purpose is to facilitate business and cooperation between the
American people and the people of Azerbaijan. Its Director is
230+ pages, linked by 136
Virtual Azerbaijan has the most comprehensive and most up-to-date
archive of relevant articles from the mainstream press about
Azerbaijan. Created by USC student Adil Baguirov, the site provides
extensive information about Azerbaijan's history, economy, government,
music, sporting teams and travel destinations. Includes many
links to personal Web sites created by Azerbaijanis, many of
whom are living or studying abroad.
This site also provides the largest selection of fonts for the
Azeri language, in both Cyrillic and Latin, primarily for IBM-compatible
machines. However, to date, since the Azerbaijan government has
not standardized the font (ASCII files) or the keyboard configuration,
there are at least six or seven different fonts available which
of course, are incompatible with each other. Fonts are also available
for downloading at the Azerbaijan Embassy www.azembassy.com and Khazar University
Web Sites that Feature Azerbaijan
BBC-Central Asia Section
One page related to the Caucasus
Broadcasts news in Azeri covering arts, sports, music, religion
and finance. English-language lessons are also available. From
the BBC home page, click on World Service: Azeri.
CIA World Factbook-Azerbaijan
One page related to Azerbaijan
Provides basic information about Azerbaijan's geography, government,
economy, communications, transportation and military, as well
as statistics on Azerbaijan's population, immigration rate and
life expectancy. Latest material is 1997. Watch for sites that
link to older versions of the CIA Factbook as it is not always
obvious what year the statistics refer to. From the CIA home
page, the path is: Publications: World Factbook: Countries: Azerbaijan.
No pages related to Azerbaijan
Covers the latest news from around the world. To find stories
about Azerbaijan, do a keyword search, or from the home page,
click on World: Asia-Pacific.
One page related to Azerbaijan
Gives brief statistical results of elections for Milli Majlis
(parliament) and for the recent 1998 presidential election. Created
by Wilfried Derksen. From the home page, select Elections Around
the World: Azerbaijan.
Open Society Institute-Azerbaijan
50 pages related to Azerbaijan
Links to the latest daily news about Azerbaijan from Reuters,
the BBC, the Washington Post and CNN Interactive. Features recent
articles on U.N. and World Bank involvement in Azerbaijan. Created
by the Open Society Institute (OSI) Information Office for Azerbaijan,
which is part of the Soros Foundations Network.
Radio Free Europe-Azerbaijan
20 pages related to Azerbaijan
Broadcasts news in Azeri three times a day. Includes human rights
reports and articles on the economy, religious freedom, refugees,
post-war life in Baku and the elections. If you're entering via
the Web site's home page, click on Broadcast Languages: Azeri.
Watch out for biased material.
This site tells about SOTA, their journal, archive and conferences.
SOTA is an acronym derived from the Dutch abbreviation for "Foundation
for the Research of Turkestan, Azerbaijan, Crimea, Caucasus and
Eight pages related to Azerbaijan
Learn how to say basic phrases, numbers, etc. in Azeri by listening
to sound clips at this Web site created by Michael C. Martin
as a hobby. Click on Foreign Languages for Travelers: Azerbaijani.
Very elementary but first attempt at language materials for Azeri
on the Web.
U.S. Bureau of
Educational and Cultural Affairs
No pages specific to Azerbaijan but lists opportunities for fellowships,
educational funding and exchange programs for professionals.
24 pages related to Azerbaijan
To read Azerbaijan-related legislation that has been proposed
to the U.S. House of Repre-sentatives or the Senate, do a keyword
search for "Azerbaijan" on this Web page. You'll be
able to read the full texts of bills such as the Silk Road Strategy
Act of 1997 and the Caucasus Peace and Stability Act of 1997.
U.S. Dept. of State-Azerbaijan
70 pages related to Azerbaijan
Contains travel advisories and information about embassy services.
From the home page, click Travel Warnings and Consular Information
Sheets: Azerbaijan. Check the home page in August 1999 if you're
looking for information on the next visa lottery.
U.S. Dept. of Energy-Azerbaijan
Eight pages related to Azerbaijan
This November 1997 report by the U.S. Energy Information Administration
provides an overview of the energy industry in Azerbaijan, describes
recent oil agreements, and gives statistics on Azerbaijan's energy
production and consumption. From the home page, go to International:
Azerbaijan: Country Analysis Brief.
U.S. Library of
90 pages related to Azerbaijan
Using research that was done before 1994, this Country Study
by the U.S. Library of Congress covers topics such as Azerbaijan's
history, both modern and ancient, environment, language, religion
and arts. Some of the information is dreadfully outdated. From
the home page, click on Topics: Places: Azerbaijan.
Voice of America-Azerbaijani
Four pages related to Azerbaijan
Broadcasts in Azeri, covering topics such as: Azerbaijanis abroad,
environmental issues, the role of women in Azerbaijan, recent
medical developments, conflict resolution and economic developments.
Program transcripts and English-language lessons are also available.
Perhaps you would like information about Azerbaijan to come to
you instead of having to search for it yourself. Simply subscribe
to any of the following mailing lists and you will receive the
latest news and information about Azerbaijan and the rest of
Central Asia via e-mail. For a more complete directory of mailing
lists and newsletters about Central Asia, visit www.fas.harvard.edu/~casww/CASWW_Email_Lists.html or Virtual Azerbaijan
is a forum for linguistic and philological discussion on peoples
and cultures of the Caucasus; no discussion of politics is permitted.
To subscribe, contact Prof. Howard Aronson: firstname.lastname@example.org.
list is most useful for people who study contemporary problems
of the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Send the message
<subscribe CENASIA YourFirstName YourLastName> to email@example.com. To post a message
to the list, write to CENASIA@vm1.mcgill.ca. For more information,
contact Keith Martin, firstname.lastname@example.org or Ted Harding, email@example.com.
forum was established by the Research Schools of Social Sciences
and Pacific & Asian Studies, The Australian National University,
Canberra. It covers Central Asia's history, politics, sociology,
demography, economics, languages, culture, philosophy and religion.
Send the message <subscribe Central-Asia-Studies-L your e-mail
address> to firstname.lastname@example.org. To post a message
to the list, write to Central-Asia-Studies-L@coombs.anu.edu.au.
distributes notices pertinent to Central Asian regional news
and activities. To subscribe, send an e-mail message to email@example.com. In the text of the
message, write subscribe CentralAsia-L. To send an announcement
to the list, address your e-mail to CentralAsia-L@fas.harvard.edu. An archive of past
announcements is available at the Harvard Central Asia Forum
Web site www.fas.harvard.edu/~casww/.
Habarlar-L Azerbaijan News Distribution Listserver is an educational
mailing list distributed daily and based at the University of
Southern California. It is the best list for specific news about
Azerbaijan in English. To subscribe, contact firstname.lastname@example.org and send the message
<subscribe Habarlar-L YourFirstName YourLastName>.
This newsletter is published monthly by the Center for Post-Soviet
Studies. To subscribe, contact William Sanford, Newsletter Editor,
on the Post Soviet States
newsletter is published by The Jamestown Foundation. There is
a fee to receive the newsletter. You can subscribe to this online
publication. Contact: Jamestown Foundation, 1528 18th Street
NW, Washington, DC 20036; Fax: (202) 483-8337; E-mail: email@example.com; or Web site: www.jamestown.org/htm/subscribers.htm.
This newsletter is distributed several times a month in both
English and Turkish. It features information on political, social,
historical and economic issues pertaining to the peoples and
nations of the Turkic world, including Azerbaijanis, Turks, Crimean
Tatars, Gagauzes, Yakuts, Kazaks, Kyrgyzians, Turkmens and Karachays.
Subscribe to this list by sending the message <subscribe TURKISTAN-N>
to firstname.lastname@example.org. To post a submission
to the newsletter, write to email@example.com. For more information
about the newsletter, visit the Web site www.turkiye.net/sota/sota.html.
is a writer and editor based in Los Angeles, California.
(6.4) Winter 1998.
© Azerbaijan International 1998. All rights reserved.
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AI 6.4 (Winter 1998)
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