Azerbaijan International

Spring 1998 (6.1)
Pages 26-29

Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan
Chronology of Major Events (1918-1920)

by Fuad Akhundov


Above, Left: Fourth Cabinet of Ministers of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (March 14, 1919 - December 22, 1919). Right: Azerbaijan's delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference (1919).

The first independent Republic of Azerbaijan existed for 23 months, between May 28, 1918, and April 28, 1920. Without a doubt, the republic existed during the most turbulent, unstable and complicated period of local history in the 20th century. Ethnic conflicts and continuous wars with Armenia, aggravated by the collapse of the Russian Empire, communist coups, civil war in Russia and the consequences of WW I, brought the region of the Caucasus into complete turmoil. This, in turn, facilitated the occupation of the entire region by the Soviet Army.

However, despite the unfavorable historical background, the Azerbaijan Republic of 1918-1920 became the first secular state in the Orient with the first European-like Parliament and the first Cabinet of Ministers. It was also the first to adopt other Western-like institutions, which were implemented for the first time in the Moslem World.

The experience of the first Republic (also known as the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic) seems particularly precious nowadays, when almost 80 years later, Azerbaijan is trying its best to create an independent state based on the finest democratic traditions laid in 1918-1920.

The Publishing House of Caspian Newspaper, the largest and most popular publication in Baku burned and looted by armenian Dashnaks and Communists in March 1918.


October 25. Communist (Bolshevik) coup in Petrograd (St. Petersburg), Russia, which brings about the collapse of the Russian Empire.

November 2. Baku Soviet, the Communist council of the so-called Baku Commissars, led by Stepan Shaumyan (an Armenian communist), becomes the supreme authority in Baku.


February 23. Transcaucasian Seym (Parliament) is established in Tbilisi (Georgia) as the Legislative power in the Transcaucasus, with Azeris, Georgians and Armenians holding equal representation.

March . Influence of the Musavat Azerbaijani National Party increases, causing tensions among the Communist leadership of the Baku Soviet, resulting in ethnic hostilities and the massacre of about 10,000 Azeris in Baku. The massacre is carried out between the Red (Communist) Army and the Dashnak Armenian armed units. Soviet power in Baku is completely destroyed.

April 22. The Federation of the Republic of Transcaucasia names ministerial posts in Tbilisi, which are distributed between Azeri, Armenian and Georgian representatives. Tensions within this federation develop due to German support of the Georgians, British support of the Armenians and Turkish support of the Azeris. The situation is further aggravated by World War I, and by the Civil War in Russia between the Red Army of the Communists and the White Army of the Monarchists.

Mammad-Amin Rasulzade in his youth (right) among Social Democrats M. Azizbayov (left) and Nariman Narimanov (second from left).

Right: Officers of the Azerbaijan Army. 1919.

May 26: The Republic of Georgia declares its independence, causing the collapse of the Transcaucasian Federation.

May 28. Azerbaijan and Armenia declare independence. The formation of the first Cabinet of Ministers. Fatali-khan Khoyski becomes Azerbaijan's first Prime Minister.

June 4. Peace and Friendship Agreement is signed between Azerbaijan Republic and Turkey. Establishment of the Turkish Military Mission in Ganja.

June 12. The Second Cabinet of Ministers is formed by Khoyski in Ganja (which, at that time, was the capital of the Republic of Azerbaijan, as Baku was still under control of the Communist government).

June 16. Military offensive by the Communist Baku Soviet against the Azeri government in Ganja is repelled with the help of Turks.

Left: Burning and looting that took place in March 1918 when the Armenian Dashnaks and Communists attacked Baku.

June 27 - July 1. Geokchay Battle. Azeri and Turkish troops defeat the Red Army and Dashnak Armenian units.

July 31. Fall of the Soviet power in Baku. The arrest of the Baku Commissars who, subsequently, were deported to Turkmenistan and executed by British troops (reportedly). The formation of the so-called "Central Caspian Dictatorship" in Baku, supported by British troops from Enzeli (Iran), whose purpose is to prevent Turkish and Azeri advancements.

July to September. Ethnic conflicts with Armenians in Nakhchivan, Zangezur and Karabakh, resulting in considerable fatalities among Azeri civilians. All Azeris are forced to flee Zangezur (the strip of land that connects Azerbaijan to Nakhchivan and which has since become part of Armenia). Counter-attack and further advancement of Azeri and Turkish forces from Ganja to Baku.

Artillery of the Azerbaijan National Army, around 1919.
Center: Turkish non-commissioned officers in Ganja, Autumn 1918.
Right: Telephone communications of the Azerbaijani Army, 1919.

Turkish Officers - 1918

Telephone - 1919

September 9. Azerbaijan adopts national flag, which includes three stripes: blue (Turkic), red (sacrifice) and green (Islamic), with a crescent and eight-pointed star. Beginning in 1920, this tricolor flag is prohibited by the Soviet regime but is finally restored when Azerbaijan regains its independence in 1991.

September 15. Victorious Azerbaijani and Turkish army corps enter Baku. The capital of Azerbaijan is moved from Ganja to Baku. Hostile ethnic outbreaks against Armenians (in retaliation for the massacres that Armenians had inflicted against Azerbaijanis in March 1918). The hostilities are finally brought under control by the Azeri government and by Turkish military commanders, who publicly execute some of their own soldiers charged with pillaging. Solid law and order established after a year of anarchy.

Ganja Brass Band - 1918September 30. Armistice is signed between Great Britain and Turkey in Mudros, stipulating the replacement of Turkish troops in the Caucasus by British forces. This results in the removal of the Turkish Army corps in Baku, led by Nuri-Pasha.

Photo: The Brass Band of the Azerbaijan National Army. In Ganja, autumn 1918.

November 17. The Azerbaijani Parliament establishes the provisional legislative body of the Azerbaijan Republic. The Parliament consists of 120 members (80 Azeris, 21 Armenians, 10 Russians, 1 Jew, 1 German, 1 Pole and 1 Georgian. Five seats are assigned to representatives of various professional groups).

November - December. War breaks out between Armenia and Georgia in the Ahalkhalaki and Ahaltshykh regions in Georgia, where the population is predominately Armenian. Clashes result in more than 30,000 casualties.

December 7. The opening session of the Parliament of the Azerbaijan Republic, the first of its kind in the Islamic world.

December 28. Declaration by British General Thompson, in support of the Azeri Parliament as the only legal authority within the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Azerbaijan National Army 19191919

January 8. Peace Conference in Paris­Azeri governmental delegation, led by Alimardan-bey Topchibashev, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, heads to Paris.

March 14. Formation of the Fourth Cabinet of Ministers by Nasib-bey Usubbeyov (Yussifbeyli), the new Prime Minister.

April 25. The Conference of the Transcaucasian States in Tbilisi (Georgia) meets to discuss political, economic and financial issues, as well as to settle territorial disputes.

Photo: Infantry unit of the Azerbaijan National Army. Around 1919.

May 28
. The first anniversary of the Azerbaijan Republic. Meeting of the Azeri delegation with U.S. President Woodrow Wilson at the Peace Conference in Paris, where there is a presentation of a memorandum concerning the establishment of the Azerbaijan Republic.

July 21. Men and women both guaranteed the right to vote.

Mid-summer. General Anton I. Denikin, Commander of the Volunteer Army to Daghestan, who had been fighting against the Communists in Russia, advances into the Caucasus. Increased tensions between the Azeri and Georgian governments as well as with General Denikin over the proximity of the volunteer army on the northern borders of Azerbaijan and Georgia.

June 27. Republics of Azerbaijan and Georgia sign a defensive agreement, intended to prevent further advancement of Denikin's Army.

Azerbaijan troops enter Baku - 1918
July-August. Ethnic tensions in the mountains of Karabakh result in riots. Agreement is between the Armenian community and the government of Azerbaijan regarding the sovereignty of the Azerbaijan Republic in the region.
August 11. Azerbaijan adopts Law of Citizenship.

August 19. Complete withdrawal of British troops from Baku and Azerbaijan.

September. State university is established, the first of its kind in the Islamic world. Professor V.A. Razumovski, from Tbilisi, becomes the first rector of the university. The first 100 Azeri students are sponsored by the Azerbaijan government to study abroad in Europe. (Many of these students never return to Azerbaijan due to Soviet occupation a year later.

October 30. Charter on Mass Media in the Azerbaijan Republic is ratified. Censorship is officially repealed.

November-December. Further clashes with Armenians in Zangezur, the region between mainland Azerbaijan and Nakhchivan. Later, this land is given to Armenia, thus separating these two parts of Azerbaijan.

November 23. Cease-fire agreement between Azerbaijan and Armenia, signed in Tbilisi.

December 14. Azerbaijani-Armenian Conference in Baku. Directive is to curb hostilities.

December 24. Formation of the Fifth Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic by Nasib-bey Usubbeyov (Yussifbeyli).

Map Azerbaijan - 1919

Map of the Republic of Azerbaijan as presented to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.


January 12.
The Council of Allied Powers issues the de facto republic of Azerbaijan.

January to March. Situation at the northern borders of the Azerbaijan Republic is further aggravated by the advance of the Red (Soviet) Army on General Denikin's Volunteer Army. Note by G. V. Checherin (Foreign Commissar of the Soviet Russia) is sent to the government of the Azerbaijan Republic with a proposal to end the military alliance against General Denikin. Khoyski, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan, rejects the proposal.

February 11-12. Foundation of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan's "Fifth Column" with A.I. Mikoian (an Armenian) as key figure. Preparation for Communist coup in Baku.

March 22. Dashnak (Armenian) riots in Karabakh are organized with the intent to distract the Azerbaijan government from the situation in the Northern Caucasus. Battle in Askaran.

March - April. Complete defeat of Denikin's Volunteer Army with concentration of the 11th Red Army troops at the northern borders of Azerbaijan.

April 1. Resignation of the Fifth Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic. Political crisis.

April 27-28. 11th Red Army troops enter Baku. The Communist party demands resignation of the Parliament of the Azerbaijan Republic. Soviet power is declared in Baku.

May 20. Soviet Army occupies remainder of Azerbaijan. Uprising in Ganja is suppressed. Horrific atrocities occur when the Communists kill 40,000 Azerbaijanis.

Summer-Autumn. Further dissemination of Soviet power in Azerbaijan.

December. Fall of the Republic of Armenia. Soviet regime is established in Yerevan.


Soviet occupation in Georgia.

December 22. Azerbiajan, Armenia and Georgia become part of the USSR.

From Azerbaijan International (6.1) Spring 1998.
© Azerbaijan International 1998. All rights reserved.

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